Global warming is the process of increasing the average temperature of the atmosphere, ocean, and Earth’s land. Global average temperature at Earth’s surface has risen 0.74 ‘° C ‘± 0:18 (1:33 ‘± 0:32 ‘° F) during the last hundred years. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that “most of the increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century most likely caused by increased concentrations of greenhouse gases due to human activities” through the greenhouse effect.
Rising global temperatures are expected to lead to other changes such as rising sea levels, increased intensity of extreme weather phenomena, as well as changes in the number and pattern of precipitation. Consequences of global warming is another terpengaruhnya agricultural output, loss of glaciers, and the extinction of various animal species.
Orangutans are the only of four taxa of great apes that live in Asia, while three other relatives, namely gorillas, and bonobos live Chimpanzee in the African continent. There are two types of orangutan, the Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii), which limited its spread in the north Sumatran and Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), which still are in some places that are pockets of habitat in Sabah and Sarawak, especially in the area of ‘”¹'”¹peat bogs and forests dipterocarp lowland in the southwest part of Borneo between the Kapuas and Barito River (province of West Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan), and east of the Mahakam River to the north (the provinces of East Kalimantan and Sabah). Indonesia has a very important position in the conservation of orangutans in the world, because most of the orangutan population that still survive today in the territory of the Republic of Indonesia
It is known that the population of wild orangutans has declined continuously in recent decades due to the decrease in lowland forests and in recent years tended to decrease in population is happening more quickly. Trade are still being hunted and orangutans, including for smuggled abroad also contributed to the decline in populations of wild orangutans in the wild. Habitat loss and poaching and trafficking is still a major threat to the survival of orangutans in Indonesia.
Climate change in the future, is expected to be a serious threat to orangutan conservation, especially in the availability of food resources caused by abrupt disruption of the system inflorescence and tree is the source pakannya because adannya rise in temperature and rainfall. Another threat is the loss and destruction of habitat due to forest fires induced by climate change. Forest fires are known to the 1997/1998 El Nino phenomenon is triggered by a trigger has been a decline in habitat quality and cause many casualties orangutan orangutans in significant numbers. Symptoms of climate change in the period was also known to have influenced the pattern of inflorescence and abrupt hutanhutan forest trees in Borneo, so it affects the lives of many wildlife species.
In addition to climate variability, climate change factors will further provide a permanent impact on the habitat of orangutans. Climate change will lead to changes in regional rainfall patterns, so it will alter the hydrological cycle of a region. As a result, water availability for forest changed so that it can interfere with the conservation of forests for the foreseeable future. Climate change could also alter the ideal conditions for the survival of orangutans.
Climate Changes in Central Kalimantan
a. Changes in Rainfall
Central Kalimantan, Borneo as a whole region, has the type of precipitation equator, which has two maximum rainfall within a year. The influence of monsoon in the equatorial region is less strict than the influence insolasi at ekinoks (Bayong, 2004). Ekinoks position of the sun is directly above the equator that occurred on March 21 and September 23. But in fact, the maximum rainfall that occurred did not exactly happen in the second month, although the double-feature with fixed maximum rainfall occurs in Central Kalimantan.
b. Temperature Changes
A significant rise in temperature can lead to various effects, one of which is the shortage of clean water supply. However, with the warming of the surface it will produce a large enough rain anyway. However, if rainfall is not balanced land-use form of vegetation, most of the rain will become runoff directly and it will be difficult to set as the water needs for 1 year.
c. Influence Enso
Average annual temperature of Indonesia in 1997/1998 has increased due to the ENSO phenomenon is quite strong. This is shown in Figure 9 which shows a positive anomaly of magnitude more than 0.5 ‘° C (the largest since 1900).
Apart from the influence of several factors above, kebakan forests are also a threat to the survival of orangutans. For instance occurs naturally drought caused by part of the El Nino weather phenomenon that later caused a fire in Sebangau National Park in addition to the huge artificial drainage. During 1997, 12% forest cover in the catchment area of ‘”¹'”¹the core in-Katingan Sebangau lost due to forest fires. Testing of hotspots showed that most of Borneo burned in June and the month following month until the end of October and November during wild canals causing water pengatusan until dry enough to burn. Region’s most extensive fire occurred in the catchment area, including the sub-type High Stand Forest. The fire started from a small scale with the burning of leaf litter and peat surface and subsequently causes the burning of the tree to collapse.
Climate change is also predicted to be an impact on orangutans indirectly, for example the availability of the source and the abundance of feed for the system terpengaruhnya inflorescence and abrupt tree is the source pakannya. Climate change is also potentially affect the habitat of orangutans due to the emergence of forest fires sparked by a change in temperature. Extensive drought that occurred in Kalimantan in 1997/1998 due to El Nino has caused the biggest forest fire ever and have burned millions of hectares of forests, including the orangutan habitat. An estimated 1,000 of the 40,000 orangutans (2.5%) fall victim to a big forest fire in 1997. As a model it is assumed that the disaster caused by a severe El Nino events would kill an average of 3.5% of orangutan and the El Nino usual, this disaster will lead to killing of 1% of the population of orangutans.